Access to resources has gradually moved from local possession to transcend national boundaries. Automated union and other catalogues will accelerate this process Digital text storage and transmission offer further possibilities for some material, but meanwhile conventional international lending is hindered by numerous barriers and restrictions. Few countries are yet able to supply even the majority of their own publications. International cooperation in collection building is unlikely to contribute much, but international cooperation in preservation microfilming and digitization could aid availability. In the future the wheel could come full circle if media such as CD-ROMs holding vast quantities of information can be acquired cheaply by individual libraries.
During the past two decades the very distinctive changes that have taken place in the content of bibliographic tools have been matched by similar changes in the approach of librarians to their profession. Much work was undertaken in developing international bibliographic standards and standard practices, and on the basis of these, a number of international information programs and systems were established in the 1970s. Librarians, in understanding the complexities of trying to create bibliographic tools that could be used worldwide, became more flexible in their approach. As a consequence, national bibliographic developments worldwide are now planned with an awareness of the international context and of the advantages of following internationally used standards and practices, including catalog codes such as AACR2 and classification schemes such as DDC. Today, however, the information gap between librarians in the rich and in the poor countries appears to be growing, particularly through the introduction of high technology. This is leading to frustration in poor countries where high technology is not widely available, but where the international bibliographic tools are in use, and the situation is made worse when libraries in rich countries, because of economic decisions, cease to pro-duce bibliographic services in hard copy. Catalog cards and printed issues of the larger national bibliographies have helped the creation of many national and university libraries in poor countries, and it is hoped that this contribution to development will be recognized by developed countries when decisions to cut such services are under discussion.
Cataloguing at the international level involves both exchange of data and one-way provision of information. Problems needing continuing attention include local and national variations, the role of the main entry, use of the vernacular, options in codes, increased use of multiple access points, sophisticated authority control, and improved searching techniques. Subject access through words or classification remains highly problematic. Greater international uniformity will provide better cataloguing and information management for most libraries.
The new Preservation and Conservation programme of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions is described. The importance of approaching the problems of preservation and conservation on an international scale and the need for international guidelines and standards are emphasized. Forthcoming international seminars and conferences that will offer training opportunities are mentioned.
This paper gives a short history of the events leading to the Linked Systems Project. The two major components of the project are described, namely, the cornrnunications facility and the applications programs. The initial application, the sharing of authority data based on the Library of Congress Name Authority Cooperative Project (NACU), is discussed and future applications and their implications are briefly addressed.
Three research libraries in Indiana -- Indiana University, the University of Notre Dame, and Purdue University -- are developing an approach to coordinated collection management through application of the Research Libraries Group's Conspectus. The effort has been managed by the Association of Research Libraries Office of Management Studies as Phase 2 of the North American Collections Inventory Project. This paper describes why and how the North American Collections Inventory Project was implemented in Indiana; how cooperative decisions and planning are proceeding as a result of the project; some of the benefits and drawbacks of the project; and concludes with comments on the future, as the North American Collections Inventory Project begins Phase 3.
A financial survey of the American publishing scene is given, followed by descriptions of the way editorial and marketing processes work. Practices relating to contracts, imprints, distribution arrangements, remainders, etc., are described. The changes in contemporary publishing practice resulting from electronic publishing are noted.
This paper contrasts the world of the 1970s with that of today with special reference to publications for children and young adults.
Many British scholarly journals have had one price for domestic subscribers and another price for North American subscribers for several years. Recently, the two prices have become totally unrelated and American librarians have become aware of the discrepancy. A seminar entitled "Learned Journals: The Problem of Pricing and Buying Round," held in London on March 22, 1985, was in part an attempt to answer charges of discriminatory pricing. This paper is an informal report of the seminar.
The Law Library Microform Consortium, a nonprofit library cooperative, is a major supplier of legal materials on microfiche, Because it regards silver halide, film stock as an inferior medium for materials destined to see actual library use, it supplies its products only on diazo film. The author believes that many librarians have misconceived their goals in the cause of archival preservation, and that many micro-publishers are unable or unwilling to buck this widespread misconception. Publishers will continue to provide silver halide film until educated librarians begin to demand a more durable film stock for their libraries.
Silver halide, diazo, and vesicular films have special characteristics. The purchaser's choice offilm should be governed by an understanding of just what one does and does not get with each of these types of film.