This paper represents a break in the venerable tradition of the Library Resources & Technical Services "Year's Work . .." series and should be regarded as an experiment. The exhaustive review of the published literature in the various specialties of technical services is being replaced by a general, review of events, issues, and trends in technical services, including the areas of bibliographic networks and online catalogs. So broad a scope requires that considerable selectivity be exercised. In so doing, it is necessary at the beginning to state the basis for selecting issues for treatment.
Even though practice systems were still not available, many arti¬cles in 1983 focused on the potential uses of video and optical disks. Numerous articles and position papers resulted from the report of the Register of Copyrights to Congress and from other attacks on the doctrine of "fair use." Telefacsimile was rediscovered by libraries, thanks to the appearance of improved systems on the market. Various preservation microfilming programs created a renewed interest in microforms in re-search libraries. Gains previously achieved in the area of bibliographic control of microforms were consolidated with the establishment of the Microform Cataloging Clearinghouse and the formation of an ALA Reproduction of Library Materials Section [RLMS] committee concerned with the bibliographic control of microforms. One large micropublisher went out of business while another issued the first sections of one of the largest microfilm collections ever to be attempted. New equipment for reading and printing microforms was introduced, and several works were published designed to help librarians with the selection and maintenance of microforms equipment. Business uses of micrographics tended more and more toward hybrid systems that use microforms to store and computers to access images. The micrographics industry's two major organizations settled into their new roles as managers of information handling systems.
To test the extent and kind of international standardization resulting from the use of the second edition of the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, a study was made of catalogue headings for corporate names entered in direct order. The headings examined appeared in the 1981 bibliographic records of the Library of Congress, the National Library of Canada, the British Library, and the National Library of Australia. Of the mutual uses of this type of heading, an average of 87.2 percent of an agency's headings matched one or more of the others. Unique uses by each agency are noted and the number and types of matches and differences are analyzed.
A multifaceted card catalog use study was conducted at the University of Illinois Music Library to determine (l) the hourly rate of use at the sound recording and book/music catalogs, (2) the amount of time users spend at the catalogs, (3) who uses the catalogs and why, (4) what difficulties users encounter, (5) the success rate of users' searches, and (6) recommendations for designing an online catalog.
A use study was conducted of fifty pairs of popular and technical monographs in a health sciences library. The books were matched by subject, date of publication, and date of acquisition. Although in gross figures the technical works circulated more at both two- and four-year minimum intervals, the difference was not statistically significant.
Since centralized processing centers are available in many large school districts today, the question arises as to whether or not practicing school media specialists need the skills taught in traditional cataloging courses. To determine the extent to which school librarians are actually involved in processing both print and nonprint media center materials and what tools they use, a survey was conducted of two hundred randomly chosen media specialists in Nebraska. Seventy-nine percent returned the questionnaire, and almost three-fourths indicated that despite the availability of .centralized processing in same districts, they were still responsible for their own materials processing. Although about half receive mast books already cataloged, key still have to process audiovisual materials and do some original cataloging of print materials. Approximately 14 percent processed all their own materials regardless of format. Dewey decimal classification and the Sears list were used far subject analysis, particularly, for print materials, almost without exception. Almost one-third used either the. first or second edition of the Anglo-American cataloging code as the authority for choice of main entry for original cataloging, although almost a fourth used some other authority or none at all. The librarians expressed interest in a variety of cataloging workshop topics. It was concluded that not only are school librarians in Nebraska still primarily responsible for materials processing but that they are very interested in continuing education related to cataloging.