This article on international standards summarizes the background and organizational structure of the International Organization for Standardization; describes ISO Technical Committee 46, its subcommittees, working groups, and secretariats; mentions some other relevant technical committees and international organizations involved in standardization; describes the means of U.S. participation in ISO through the American National Standards Institute, Inc.; lists international standards published to date and standards in progress; and notes a few sources of retrospective and current information about international library standards.
An experiment of scheduling the four-day (or four-and-one-half-day) work week in technical services at the Ohio State University libraries is described. The policy decisions and procedures implemented for the entire library system following the success of the experiment and the adoption of the new schedule are outlined.
The general and specialized sources -- publishers' catalogs, trade magazines and bibliographies, comprehensive and special bibliographies, book reviews, and government publication indexes -- available to locate materials in the Jewish field are identified and discussed.
Since the Paris conference of 1961 corporate authorship has become rapidly an internationally recognized element in bibliographic control. There are difficulties in applying this concept to cataloging because there is no generally agreed upon theoretical basis for this type of authorship. An analysis of relevant concepts suggests that corporate authorship is basically a form of personal authorship and that the use of corporate name in lieu of personal name(s) is a problem of choice of name rather than one of determining type of authorship.
Efforts toward the international realignment of German cataloging rules in accordance with the provisions of the "Paris Principles" of 1961 are reviewed. The two-dimensional approach of the "Prussian Instructions," which specifies entering all published materials either under the personal name of a known author or -- in the case of the ever-growing class of "anonyma" -- as title entry, no longer suffices for the characterization and identification of the publishing output of a technologically oriented corporate society. The acceptance of the principle of corporate authorship by German librarians has led to the formulation of the new German code, Regeln fur die alphabetische Katalogisierung. The code attempts to provide decision rules for the generation of bibliographic access elements that may be unambiguously identified by man or machine within German-speaking countries and eventually lead to universal bibliographic control.
The classification for curricular materials developed by and used at the University of Iowa Curriculum Laboratory is described. The classification is designed (1) to cover all curricular areas, (2) to be simple, logical, and recognizable, (3) to be adaptable to a wide variety of materials in all media, and (4) to provide ready accessibility to all materials through complete cataloging. Portions of the classification and examples of its application are included.
The centered heading is a typographical device used in the Dewey Deci¬mal Classification (DDC) schedules to signal a breakdown in the relationship between the system's inner structure and its notation. It usually identifies a class for which no single class number is provided in the schedules. It cannot be justified on any theoretical grounds, but has served the practical functions of (1) shortening class numbers and (2) permitting the system to expand internally with a minimum of major notational changes. With the present state of research in the use of DDC, the criteria needed to evaluate the practical consequences of the device are lacking.
Subject heading theory as exemplified in the practice of two leading American music libraries, the New York Public Library and the Library of Congress is discussed from the point of view of Cutter's basic principles, identifying significant differences in terminology and structure of headings for music monographs. Variations from Library of Congress practice, particularly in regard to subdivision and inversion, result in more specific and direct subject entry. The desirability of adopting Library of Congress subject headings for use with automated cataloging procedures is contrasted with the value of specialized subject access for the music research library.