The Cataloging-in-Publication program has been accompanied by a good deal of optimism. The program faces, however, a number of difficult problems which must be solved if Cataloging-in-Publication is to succeed. The difficulties that resulted in, the failure of the 1958-59 Cataloging-in-Source program still exist, and the actual value of such a project to libraries has yet to be proved. For a number of reasons, the optimism with which CIP has been approached does not appear to be warranted.
Author entry as main entry is derived from traditions that are no longer valid when the identical entry can appear under many different headings or is used in a computerized system. Title entry as unit entry eliminates the unnecessary choice of a main entry and prevents problems of identification in a computerized system. The resulting simplification of processing sharply reduces the need for descriptive cataloging by professionals without sacrificing quality as all entries are of equal value.
The Library of Congress printed cards for Chinese literature have had a history of only slightly over a decade. They have not grown into a vast resource. For the establishment of Chinese personal names, the cataloger must consult a good number of reference tools, in addition to the National Union Catalog. The writer lists selected books in Chinese as well as in other languages which have been found helpful at the Ohio State University libraries. Each book is described or evaluated from the cataloger's standpoint.
According to the Library of Congress Subject Headings list and the Sears List of Subject Headings, there are at least six different forms in which period subdivisions under main subject headings are constructed, some with verbal designations, others with numerical dates. The diversity in form creates tremendous problems in the filing, especially by machine, and use of the catalog cards bearing such headings. A modification of the various forms into one uniformed type has been proposed in the Nines-Harris computer filing code. This paper attempts to examine this revised format with reference to the basic nature and function of the period subdivision in subject headings and with regard to its use from the catalog user's point of view.
A sample of new entries for a conventional subject authority list was analyzed. Main headings were divided by form, and subject subdivisions by type, as characterized by Haykin, and the occurrence of headings requiring references in each of these forms and types examined. Only 26 percent of the cards were for main headings, yet this group produced 82 percent of the cards requiring references. Some questions on the value of the conventional subject authority file are considered.
By introducing ample cross references and explanatory notes into the subject elements of the catalog, currency can be achieved without sacrificing previous subject approaches or requiring extensive redoing of subject cards.
The Library of Congress classification schedules relating to Eastern Europe
were drawn up in 1916 when all of this huge area was politically divided between
the Austro-Hungarian, German, and Russian empires. While in the Austrian schedules
the existence of many nationalities was taken into account, it was completely
disregarded in the Russian schedules. For the last half century not much has
been done by the Library of Congress to rectify this deficiency and, consequently,
these schedules are inadequate and obsolete in many areas. In some instances
the LC classification schedules themselves and new instructions as to their
use indicate that there is a certain apprehension on the part of LC to introduce
new classifiation schedules and subject headings for that part of Europe.
This paper endeavors to present some examples of inconsistencies which contradict the overall LC policy and defy the sound principle of classification based on deductive and inductive methods applied by the Library of Congress in other areas. The paper also supplies some examples as to how the LC classification schedules could be improved and, in the long run, could save time and money, both for library administration and library users.
Expanding a large card catalog is a complex process requiring careful planning of procedure, judicious allocation of labor, and simplified techniques. The operation at Ca; Hell involved a timesaving method of determining the catalog's size by random sampling and a careful determination of labor skills required for each phase of expansion. The report updates those of earlier expansion operations in other libraries. It gives an analysis of labor costs incurred and attempts to relate them to cost figures from a similar operation carried out by a library in 1952. The conclusion is reached that a major catalog expansion can be undertaken economically and without disruption of regular technical and public service activities.
Because the Superintendent of Documents classification system groups publications by issuing agency rather than by subject, it is difficult for library patrons to use government publications without the assistance of library staff. Effective use of staff to meet the, needs of patrons involves less technical services work and more direct assistance. It is possible to avoid an ongoing reclassification program by shelving publications under their original Superintendent of Documents classification number while bringing all publications of an agency or a series together on visible record files.
Even though statistical compilations published by the Office of Education imply that thirty-nine academic libraries abandoned the Library of Congress Classification in favor of Dewey during the 1960s, a survey of the libraries themselves reveals that none took such an anomalous step.
Instant communication, characterized by brevity, should be the practice of exchange librarians trading titles on the international level. Librarians, however, have tended to adhere to the protocol of diplomacy with lengthy exchanges of letters. Considering the increase in publications output and the use of automation for acquiring purchased materials and possibly for exchanges --besides the complexities related to exchange publications -- it is felt that uniformity in communication can be achieved through the use of a multilingual, many-purpose form letter. In presenting the guidelines for the form, a comparison is made with the recently proposed standard book exchange request form which has been suggested by the [FLA Committee on the Exchange of Publications.
There is little information available concerning economic aspects of serials exchanges. The Iowa State University library has had a very active serials exchange program for over fifty years. The article estimates the costs of this library's exchange operations and attempts to assess the value of serials received, concluding that the program is economically beneficial as the value of receipts exceeds the direct costs to the library by at least $,000. It also enumerates the various nonmonetary benefits of exchanges which might be of greater importance than the purely monetary factors.
A somewhat different approach to the work of cataloging is described. It involves: pre-selection of materials into meaningful groups for economy in searching and easier identification when bibliographical sources are lacking; making decisions to catalog titles as series whenever the series has a clearly identifiable subject to save classification lime; contact with the teaching staff in order to process books needed for future courses; passing along information gained during cataloging to the acquisitions department staff. The proposed system results in savings in processing, closer contact with library and teaching staff, and systematic build-up of the collection.
The Resources and Technical Services Division of the American Library Association presents the ESTHER J. PIERCY AWARD for 1972 to Carol A. Nemeyer in recognition of her contributions to technical services: Carol Nemeyer's professional interests have focused on an area of concern common to publishing and librarianship-the re-print industry. Her distinguished academic work has resulted in a doctoral dissertation on the subject and in the publication in 1972 of Scholarly Reprint Publishing in the United States, a new professional tool for librarians and the book trade. Her intensive survey has brought a sense of coherence to an increasingly important segment of the book world. She combines qualities of intellectual energy and professional achievement we look for in our leaders and which we fittingly salute in the name of Esther J. Piercy.
The Margaret Mann Citation in Cataloging and Classification in 1972 is awarded to Edmond Lewis Applebaum for his contribution to the development of the National Program for Acquisitions and Cataloging. NPAC has made the Library of Congress more responsive to the needs of other libraries and has brought the library community much closer to the ideal of each title's being cataloged once for all libraries. While engaged in dealing with many technical and administrative problems, Mr. Applebaum has always been ready to hear from the consumers and to adapt the program to their needs.