ALCTS - Association of Library Collections & Technical Services

Task Force on the Cataloging of Works Intended for Performance


Interim Report
Draft Document for Discussion

CC:DA/TF/Works for Performance/1



CC:DA documents CC:DA/MuLA/1995/1 and CC:DA/MuLA/1995/1/suppl. discussed problems of main entry for moving image materials with prominent musical content. In the discussion of this issue, CC:DA determined that this was merely one instance of a much wider problem: that of the cataloging of works intended for performance, including musical works (such as music videos, videorecordings of live orchestral performances and operas, and music interactive multimedia), choreographed dances, plays, etc. In particular, issues identified include the definition of a work, the concepts of authorship and main entry, and shared versus mixed responsibility.


The Task Force on the Cataloging of Works Intended for Performance is charged with the preparation of a position paper on the problems associated with the cataloging of works intended for or realized through performance. The Task Force should:

  1. examine the rules and identify those areas that are in conflict or have been particularly problematic
  2. identify and summarize the interrelated underlying concepts within the cataloging rules which touch on these issues (including those noted above)
  3. make recommendations regarding what course of action CC:DA should take, including possible recommendations to the Joint Steering Committee regarding rules/concepts to be addressed in JSC's upcoming Conference of Cataloguing Experts.

The Task Force shall present CC:DA with an interim report at the 1996 ALA Midwinter Meeting. The final report of the Task Force shall be presented CC:DA at the 1996 Annual Conference, and shall be sent to the Chair of CC:DA no later than 1 June 1996. A copy of all materials distributed to the members of the Task Force shall be sent to the Chair of CC:DA.

CC:DA/TF/Works for Performance/2


Martha Yee, Chair
Brad Young
Daniel Kinney
Philip Schreur
James Maccaferri
John Attig (consultant)
Ralph Manning (consultant)

CC:DA/TF/Works for Performance/[3]

June 18, 1996

Interim Report

Please note that the purpose of this page is to facilitate the work of the Committee and to provide a means for outreach to both library and non-library cataloging communities. This document is intended for the exclusive use of CC:DA and its cataloging constituencies, and is presented as a discussion document in the ongoing process of rule revision. Under no circumstances should the information here be copied or re-transmitted without prior consultation with the current Chair of CC:DA.

The Task Force met on Friday afternoon, July 5, [1996,] to discuss a draft document that outlines the problems with the existing rules in AACR2R, and then suggests 7 different possible theoretical approaches to the problem of works intended for performance.

Some of the fundamental problems with AACR2R include the following:

  1. There is no general rule for mixed responsibility in new works.
  2. Most rules are based on format rather than conditions of authorship.
  3. The same work intended for performance can be entered differently, depending on whether it manifests itself as printed music, a performance on a sound recording, or a performance on a videorecording.

The seven possible approaches are as follows:

Work approaches:

  1. Consider a work intended for performance as a set of instructions meant to be carried out by the persons who perform or realize the work; tie entry to the cataloger's judgement as to how detailed the original instructions were, and how closely they were followed in the performance.
  2. Consider whether the realization involves the addition of a major component to the original work, such as the addition of a visual aspect (cinematography, editing, production design, acting).
  3. Ask the cataloger to distinguish between "mere recording" and substantive recording (cinematography and editing).
  4. Consider dramatic works intended for performance (operas, ballets, plays and screenplays) as inherently collaborative works, most usefully identified by title.

Authorship approaches:

  1. Identify all of the functions that could be carried out in realizing a work intended for performance, and classify them as to primary or subsidiary authorship status.
  2. Similar to 4 above.
  3. Distinguish between cases in which creation of the "text" is part of a collaboration (title entry) and cases in which a pre-existing "text" is realized by performers (entry under creator of original "text").

Any answer to this problem must have two parts:

  1. Is a work intended for performance and its realization the same work, or two different works?
  2. If both are the same work, how is it to be identified: by author, or by title

The intent of the Task Force is to finalize the document discussed on Friday, and submit it to CC:DA for discussion by the Committee as a whole at the Midwinter meeting.

CC:DA/TF/Works for Performance/[4]

June 17, 1997

Draft Document for Discussion by CC:DA and the Cataloging Community

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