Committee on Cataloging: Description and Access

Library of Congress

Library of Congress Liaison Report to
Annual Meeting, July 2000

Submitted by Barbara B. Tillett, LC Liaison to ALA/ALCTS/CCS/CC:DA

LC at ALA Midwinter

The Library’s exhibit booth is no. 2017. Exhibit hours are: Saturday, July 8, 9 am-5 pm; Sunday, July 9, 9 am-5 pm; Monday, July 10, 9 am-5 pm; and Tuesday, July 11, 9 am-3 pm. The newly designed booth, making its first appearance at ALA, is configured to include 10 workstations and a theater area with bench seating for a dozen people. Demonstrations will be scheduled on many topics for in-booth presentations and will be publicized in Cognotes (the conference daily newspaper), on the Library Services Web page, and in a separate briefing handout.

LC Bicentennial

The Bicentennial Web site has been restructured for easier access to components of the Bicentennial program and is still the best source of information on LC’s Bicentennial. The site includes “slide shows” of photographs from the April 24 Bicentennial and May 23 Local Legacies celebrations. The Web site will be featured in booth presentations at ALA (Saturday, July 8, 10:30 a.m.; Sunday, July 9, 12:00 p.m.; Monday, July 10, 12:30 p.m.). The commemorative stamp and coin honoring the Library’s bicentennial will also be featured at the LC booth and available for sale (as well as free commemorative stamp and coin posters). The LC booth will also be used to demonstrate the new Web site designed especially for families: America’s Story from America’s Library <>, created to provide children with an entertaining educational experience that draws on the Library’s historical collections. This easy-to-use, colorful, and interactive site, designed to make learning about history fun, is being widely advertised by a public service campaign supported by the Ad Council with the theme: “There is a better way to have fun with history … Log On, Play Around, Learn Something.”

Integrated Library System

The Library of Congress completed the implementation of the Integrated Library System (LC ILS) on October 1, 1999. Since then, Library staff have conducted their acquisitions, cataloging, circulation, serials check-in, and reference service tasks on the system.
      To support testing future releases of Voyager software, LC acquired an additional server that will be dedicated to testing both the Voyager software upgrades and proposed changes to the production environment.
      In May 2000, the Library installed the MARC record “Validator” software for all staff who work in the LC ILS cataloging module. This software checks for data errors and inconsistencies in cataloging records before the records are added to the database, so they may be immediately corrected by the cataloger, thus reducing the cost of quality control activities and improving the timeliness of data corrections. The software was developed by cataloging automation specialist David Williamson working with Gary Strawn, authorities librarian at Northwestern University. Since Validator was installed, the Cataloging Directorate has found that the rate of tagging and content designation errors has decreased by approximately 50 percent.
      The Library is working with Endeavor Information Systems, Inc. to prepare for implementation of the Voyager Release 2000 at the Library near the end of this calendar year. Release 2000 includes new features and capabilities especially for acquisitions, serials check-in, and the public catalog. Also included will be the capability to display Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Hebrew vernacular characters in the Web OPAC (from data stored in the 880 fields of MARC bibliographic records). Endeavor presented an overview of these new release features to Library staff on June 13 and 14. The Library also intends to install the Voyager add-on, “Geospatial Searching,” which will be a welcome enhancement for accessing cartographic materials.
      Planning and testing are also underway for loading the databases for the Congressional Research Service and the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped by the end of this year.
      While references and scope notes for headings in bibliographic records are available to users of the LC Online Catalog, full MARC 21 authority records (names and subjects) are not yet displayed nor are they available via Z39.50. LC will continue to provide full MARC 21 authority records (new, updated, and deleted) through the MARC Distribution Service, which is used to update authority files in OCLC, RLIN, and many other vendor services. Full MARC 21 authority records will be available in LC’s Web OPAC by the end of calendar year 2000. We expect that users will be able to download all authority records in the Name Authority and Subject Authority Files (approximately 5 million records) in the full MARC 21 format. LC’s authority records will also be available via Z39.50. For immediate access to LC’s MARC 21 authority data during this interim period, users may consult a list compiled by LC’s Cataloging Distribution Service (CDS) of commercial alternatives to CDMARC products at: <>. LC will announce the implementation of this new feature as soon as it is available to users.
      The Library continues with the conversion of its largest remaining manual files: the 12 million card shelflist and the 900,000-title serials check-in file. Retrospective holdings and location information from these files is expected to contribute to the Library’s inventory control and materials security initiatives. Contractor staff are converting Sheet Shelflist holdings and serials check-in information that will be more widely accessible in the LC ILS. Staff continue to define pilot programs to identify the most effective approach to establishing an accurate inventory within the LC ILS of the Library’s collections.
      Additional information can be found on the public ILS home page at: <>

Cataloging Directorate

Ichiko Morita, formerly head of the Japan Documentation Center, became chief of the Social Sciences Cataloging Division on April 2. The new Rare Book Team Leader, Special Materials Cataloging Division (SMCD), will be Elizabeth Robinson, principal rare book cataloger at the Huntington Library, San Marino, Calif., who will begin at the Library at the end of July. Joe Bartl was promoted to the position of Team Leader for one of the Music and Sound Recordings teams in SMCD.

Cataloging Policy

AACR2, 1998 Revision.   On March 17, 2000, LC implemented the 1998 revision of the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd ed. The 1998 revision consolidates the 1988 AACR2 and Amendments 1993 to AACR2. It also includes a few rule revisions that the Joint Steering Committee for Revision of AACR has approved since 1992 but had not yet been published. The Library of Congress Rule Interpretations related to the 1998 AACR2 were issued in update “1999, Update Number 2-4.”

Discontinuation of “In-Process” Record Distribution for Books.   The Library of Congress discontinued distributing “in-process” records for books through the MARC Distribution Services (MDS) at the end of April 2000. As of this date current MDS subscribers for Books All, Books US, Books English, Books CJK, Books Arabic, and Books Hebrew stopped receiving in-process records, also known as “preliminary cataloging” or “encoding level 5 records.” The change will not affect the ultimate quantity or quality of LC records distributed which represent completed cataloging. The one category of in-process book records that will continue to be distributed consists of in-process records emanating from the Library’s overseas offices (field 042=lcode).
      For those needing access to the Library’s in-process records after April 2000, access is available to most in-process records through the Library’s Online Catalog either through World Wide Web access or Z39.50.

Multiple Surname Indicator Cleanup Project Status.   In 1996, the first indicator value 2 (Multiple surname) in X00 fields in MARC 21 was made obsolete. Value 1 (Single surname) was redefined as “surname” to be used for headings with either single or multiple surnames. At the time value 2 was made obsolete, various factors contributed to a delay in implementation, including, more recently, the installation of the LC ILS. LC implemented the change on January 1, 2000. All new name authority and bibliographic records should reflect the new indicator practice. Existing bibliographic records are changed only when encountered in regular work. Existing authority records are being changed on an “as encountered” basis as well, but also are being adjusted systematically by OCLC, Inc., for redistribution via the NACO nodes and CDS subscribers. As of June 26, 2000, OCLC had corrected over 100,000 name authority records – these corrections will continue at a rate of about 9,000 per week until all of the estimated 227,000 name authority records with the obsolete indicator have been changed.

Changes to the MARC Language Code List Implemented.   Beginning June 15, 2000, LC-issued bibliographic records should reflect changes made to the 2000 Edition of the “MARC Code List for Languages” (see section on Network Development and MARC Standards Office). A major change listed in the 2000 Edition that becomes effective June 15 is that “Serbo-Croatian (Cyrillic)” [scc] and “Serbo-Croatian (Roman)” [scr] have been replaced by “Bosnian” [bos], “Croatian” [scr], and “Serbian” [scc]. LCRI 1.7B2 and LCRI 25.5C are being revised to reflect these changes.

Sound Disc Cartridges.   To accommodate the sound recording medium of magneto optical disks, which are used for archival recordings made at the Library of Congress, LCRI 6.5B1 has been revised to introduce the specific material designation “sound disc cartridge.” The text added to this RI is labeled “LC practice.” This label signals a practice that LC will follow and serves as an announcement to those who may notice the practice in LC records. The practice is discretionary for other libraries. The implementation date at LC was May 1, 2000. For text of the revised LCRI 6.5B1 see <>. LC sound recording catalogers will also use the MARC 21 538 field, Systems Details Note, for information pertaining to these digital recordings.

Electronic Reproductions.   At ALA Midwinter, the ALCTS-CCS Heads of Cataloging Discussion Group raised the need to address remotely accessed electronic reproductions of works previously published in printed form where the original item may or may not be held in a library’s collection (the situation libraries face with some NetLibrary “eBook” reproductions). As a result of that discussion, OCLC asked LC to revise LCRI 1.11A to encompass explicitly digitized manifestations of works previously published in printed form. After receiving many excellent comments from the cataloging community, the LCRI has been revised and will be published in the next LCRI update.

FAQ Available for NACO Libraries Searching LC’s Online Catalog.   With the implementation of the Library of Congress’ new integrated library system (ILS), searchers of the Library of Congress Online Catalog will encounter many different types of bibliographic records that they may not have encountered when searching under the previous system, MUMS. CPSO and the Cooperative Cataloging Team in the Regional and Cooperative Cataloging Division prepared a “Frequently Asked Questions” (FAQ) document for NACO libraries to respond to questions arising from the integration of the LC files. The FAQ is available at <>.

LC Classification.   During the past six months the 2000 editions of the following schedules were sent for publication: KJ-KKZ (Law of Europe), B-BJ (Philosophy. Psychology), BR-BX (Christianity. Bible), KDZ, KG-KH (Latin American Law), and PT (German, Dutch, and Scandinavian Literatures). The initial draft of two subclasses of KB-KBZ, the classification schedule for religious legal systems is available for public review and comment at <>. The completed subclasses are KBR (History of Canon Law) and KBU (Law of the Roman Catholic Church. The Holy See). This is a preliminary draft only; it is subject to change before it receives final approval. LC has not yet begun applying these classification numbers to works in its collection. In addition to the draft of these subclasses, links are provided to two other documents: (1) a draft outline of KB-KBZ, the full classification scheme for religious legal systems of which KBR and KBU are a part; and (2) an introductory statement by Dr. Jolande Goldberg, CPSO law classification specialist, explaining the rationale and methodology being used.
      Two other subclasses, KBM (Jewish Law) and KBP (Islamic Law), are in advanced draft stage. Two versions of KBM have been distributed for outside review and comment.

Subject Subdivision Authority Records.   More than 2,100 subject subdivision authority records have been created and are being distributed to control the approximately 3,100 free-floating subdivisions in the Library of Congress Subject Headings system. The project to recode instances of form subdivisions in existing subject authority records from subfield code $x to $v is also about two-thirds complete.

Subject Headings for African Americans.   The Cataloging Directorate will revise the dated subject heading Afro-Americans and headings of the type Afro-American … to African Americans and African American … Work to change the more than 580 subject authority records will begin this fall. Changes to bibliographic records will begin in 2001.

Kanbungaku and Hanmunhak.   Japanese and Korean literature classed in AC, PL, and Z written solely in Chinese characters by Japanese and Korean authors will no longer class with Chinese literature, but with Japanese and Korean literature. Changes to the PL schedule to reflect these changes are in progress. The following new subject headings were approved on June 7, 2000: Kanbungaku (Japanese literature), Kanbun (Japanese prose literature), Kanshi (Japanese poetry), Hanmunhak (Korean literature), Hanmun sosol (Korean fiction), and Hansi (Korean poetry).

LC Response to SAC Task Force on LCSH Revision Relating to Poor People’s Policy.   After the midwinter meeting of ALA, the Association for Library Collections and Technical Services and the Council of ALA forwarded the final report of the ALCTS Cataloging and Classification Section Subject Analysis Committee Task Force on Library of Congress Subject Heading Revision Relating to the Poor People’s Policy to the Library of Congress. Of the fifteen new headings recommended for addition to LCSH by the Task Force, fourteen have been or are being added to LCSH, with one in a slightly revised form. An additional recommended heading, Corporate welfare, was added as a Used For reference on the existing heading Subsidies. In addition, the reference structures of two headings, Poor and Public welfare, were revised; the free-floating subdivision —Assaults against is being changed to —Violence against; and a new heading is being established for Corporate power.

Macau.   With the reversion of Macau to China in 1999, a new heading was created, Macau (China : Special Administrative Region) and the heading for the former Portuguese territory, Macao, was revised to Macau. For specific instructions for establishing government bodies of Macau, see <>.

Subject Headings for Individual Works of Fiction.   After several pilot projects and co-operative projects that provide enhanced subject access to individual works of fiction, the Library will now be assigning additional subject headings to selected current acquisitions of American and other English-language fiction, as part of its normal cataloging practice. The additional subject headings will appear on bibliographic records for Genre headings will also be assigned from the Guidelines on Subject Access to Individual Works of Fiction, Drama, Etc., or from Library of Congress Subject Headings.

Pinyin Romanization

The Library continues to work closely with OCLC, RLG, other libraries and professional organizations to prepare for pinyin conversion. On October 1, libraries throughout the country will begin to romanize Chinese according to new pinyin guidelines. OCLC is preparing to convert approximately 180,000 name authority records and bibliographic records in its WorldCat database, including the Library’s serial records. RLG will convert the Chinese bib records in the RLIN database, including about 170,000 of LC’s Chinese records.
      Most of the conversion will be accomplished by machine program. OCLC and RLG conversion programs have been written, based on specifications drafted by the Library. Tests are being conducted on common test-files. The results are being reviewed by LC staff; problems have been extensively discussed, and adjustments have been made to specifications and programs.
      Manual conversion of subject authorities begins on July 1. Significant changes to the PL and DS schedules (described in detail on the Library’s pinyin home page <>) will take effect on October 1. On August 1, OCLC will begin to identify and convert authority records with romanized Chinese headings for conversion. At the same time, RLG will begin to identify and convert clusters that include LC’s Chinese bib records. The Library will suspend creation and change of name authority records which include romanized Chinese in the 1xx field during August and September, while conversion of name authorities is taking place. Cataloging of Chinese material at LC will also be halted during this “gap period.” Converted records will be sent to LC, loaded into the LC Local Database over the Labor Day weekend, and then redistributed to the utilities, vendors, and other subscribers. NACO participants who are independent in Chinese name authorities will be invited to help out with the cleanup of authority records, which will begin in September.

Special Materials Cataloging Division / Music Teams

The teams are responsible for cataloging of the music and sound recording collections in the Library which are in the custody of the Music Division and the Motion Picture, Broadcasting, and Recorded Sound Division (MBRS). Notes on special areas of cataloging follow.

Core-level Music Cataloging.   On March 1, 2000, MSR implemented a plan to catalog as core-level all items that had formerly been cataloged as production-level cataloging (PLC). PLC was an enhanced version of minimal-level cataloging that provided better subject access and included some fields that were deemed useful or necessary for music and sound recordings cataloging records. An analysis of core-level versus PLC guidelines showed that there are very few differences between the two. Catalogers need no longer spend time deciding whether to catalog an item as PLC or core-level, and the switch to core-level cataloging has required little additional name authority work.

Arrearage Reduction Efforts

  • 78 rpm – The MSR teams will soon begin a project to provide core level cataloging records for the 78 rpm albums in the MBRS collections (approximately 5,000 new bibliographic records). The albums include both classical and popular sets. MSR staff continue to work on the 78’s Project for the miscellaneous works found in post-R&D collection, the Feinstein and the Fairleigh Dickinson collections.
  • 45s Project (1999 collection) – MBRS received an additional collection of 45s in March, 1999 and processing began the following month. The collection containing 33,188 discs was completed in April, 2000. MBRS now has bibliographic control for nearly 160,000 items in the 45s collections.
  • Nicholas Slonimsky Collection – This collection of monographs, donated to LC by the eminent music lexicographer, (begun last year) is nearing completion with approximately 250 items remaining. Approximately 350 items have been completed thus far.

CD Workflow 2000.   Until now, the Library has never had a workflow allowing it to catalog all current CD receipts. CD Workflow 2000, designed cooperatively by MBRS and SMCD, will enable the Library to catalog and process its annual CD receipts, currently 30,000 items. The result will be approximately 16,000 new sound recording bibliographic records each year. Briefly described, technicians use software designed by Richard Thaxter to capture data from MUZE, a commercial database, as the foundation upon which an IBC Record (Initial Bibliographic Control) is produced. These records, along with IBCs created in the Acquisitions Division, will be sent in a file to OCLC for copy cataloging. The resulting records will be merged with the IBCs in the LC ILS. Records not found in OCLC are given original cataloging at the proper level here at LC. Authority maintenance work for copied records will be accomplished through OCLC’s MARS service and LC cataloger review. The workflow began life as a special project in March 2000. To date, 2,138 IBCs have been produced. Contract negotiations with OCLC are in progress.

OCLC Copy Records for Recorded Sound Collections.   A file of bibliographic records for sound recordings long held by LC has been created by OCLC. There are 34,338 records in the file which will provide greater access to the MBRS collections. Information Technology Services (ITS) has loaded 28,000+ of the claimed records into the LC ILS (those that did not already have an LCCN when claimed from OCLC). All records contain an 042 (Authentication) field with the text “lcderive֨ for identification purposes. Although ITS performed extensive preprocessing to clean up obsolete data elements, they still suffer from several deficiencies: not all headings are authorized (percentage unknown); 262-to-260 conversion generated 260s with no or inadequate punctuation; 305-to-300 conversion often generated multiple 300 $b subfields. SMCD, with the assistance of CPSO, plans to quickly correct the 260 and 300 field problems as well as other problematic conditions identified during the load of the records.

Miscellaneous Collections.   MSR has instituted a new workflow which should soon be making available more bibliographic records for the music manuscripts and certain rare items in our collections. The MSR III team has also focused on processing the following since the beginning of the calendar year: 2,066 discs in the LP arrearage, 1,648 Copyright cassettes, and 1,168 reel-to-reel tapes of the National Public Radio collection.

Special Materials Cataloging Division / Computer Files

Direct Access Electronic Resources.   The tangible computer files arrive at an average of 207 per month. All 7,621 titles under initial bibliographic control are awaiting completed cataloging. The team has been utilizing production level cataloging (based on guidelines newly designed by the team), collection level cataloging, copy cataloging, and requests for de-selection to manage the growth of work on hand.

BEOnline+ Project for Remote Access Electronic Resources.   Business and Economics Online (BEOnline) began as a pilot project in 1996 as both a model and a catalyst for developing approaches to meet the challenges of identifying, selecting and cataloging electronic works available on the Internet. In 1999, with the installation of the Library’s new Integrated Library System (ILS), existing in-house project software became obsolete, so in January 2000 the BEOnline Project Team elected to participate in the OCLC CORC Project, using the CORC automated cataloging feature in place of the software used previously. A description of OCLC’s Cooperative Online Resource Catalog (CORC) be found at <>.
      Expanding its original focus from the subject areas of business and economics, the scope of BEOnline now extends across the disciplines, and the project has been renamed BEOnlinePlus (BEOnline+). Part of the appeal of the BEOnline+ project is in the convergence of efforts by both reference and cataloging units in selection, description, and in the provision of access to Internet resources. The BEOnline+ Team serves as the LC CORC advisory group, advising LC and OCLC on cataloging and reference issues and identifying problems in describing and accessing online resources. The team has also addressed similar issues with online resources in the LC ILS context and is working with the Library’s Special Materials Cataloging Division Computer Files Team, the Cataloging Policy and Support Office and the Serial Record Division to identify other issues surrounding cataloging online resources. The Team also reviews and recommends policies to resolve problems.
      The BEOnline+ Web site at <> is being updated to include information on the expansion of the project. The 300+ resources originally selected for the BEOnline Pilot Project are listed on the site and these items as well as the catalog records can be accessed directly from there. BEOnline+ continues to catalog online serials via OCLC CONSER, and monographs via CORC. Records created in CORC are imported to the LC local catalog, as are records for such things as LC American Memory resources found in the CORC database. Our top priority is to catalog the Library’s own American Memory sites through either original or copy cataloging. Of those NDL sites which are in scope for the CF/M Team we have found and used copy for 40 titles.
      BEOnline+ is also contributing to several of the BEAT Team’s new projects in cooperation with various reference divisions of the Library and the BEAT BECites+ project. Reference staff and both the BEOnline+ and BECites+ teams are working to create electronic bibliographies and reference materials as stated below. BEOnline activity is especially noteworthy in the following areas:

  • Business Reference Services (with the Science, Technology and Business Division)
    Currently, reference librarians in Business Reference Services are continuing the original BEOnline project, using CORC to select free monographic web-based business resources and create preliminary catalog records.
  • Alcove 9 (with the Humanities and Social Sciences Division)
    Alcove 9, so named to represent a “virtual alcove” of electronic resources to augment the eight physical alcoves in the Main Reading Room of the Library of Congress, is a list of freely available web sites in twenty-four broad subject categories selected and annotated by Humanities and Social Sciences Division subject specialists. Using the CORC multiple record harvester feature, records for resources not alreay described in CORC are being captured and added to the CORC resource catalog.
  • Hispanic Topics (with the Hispanic Division)
    In conjunction with the development of several Pathfinders on Hispanic topics, staff of the Hispanic Division are beginning to add records for resources to be included in these Pathfinders to the CORC Resource Catalog.
  • Handbook of Latin American Studies (Hispanic Division)
    In the past three months, staff from the Handbook of Latin American Studies have been adding records for the Internet resources reviewed in the Handbook to the CORC Resource Catalog.
  • Library Journal Best Reference Web Sites
    15 records in process.
Through the BEOnline Project, reference librarians continue to select resources via CORC. The Acquisitions directorate creates initial bibliographic control (IBC) records for online resources for which the library has purchased subscriptions. The monographic online resources are being cataloged by the CF/M Team in SMCD, using various workflows to fit the different projects. When copy is available, we either complete the cataloging process on CORC and import the records into the LC ILS; or we import a record from CORC into the LC ILS and complete the cataloging in our own database. Those online resources which fit the definition for serials are routed to Serial Record for cataloging. Inquiries concerning BEOnline+ or LC CORC may be directed to Allene Hayes, project chair <>.

Motion Picture, Broadcast and Recorded Sound

Moving Image Section

Archival Moving Image Materials: A Cataloging Manual (AMIM), 2nd Edition.   Archival Moving Image Materials: A Cataloging Manual, 2nd Edition, (AMIM2), will be published late this summer and may be ordered now from the Library of Congress Cataloging Distribution Service. The LC AMIM Revision Committee and CPSO would like to thank MRC members for their valuable review of the AMIM draft revision. The AMIM Revision Committee was able to modify the revision in several ways based upon consideration of MRC comments. For example, the nonstandard use of parallel titles and several options that contradicted rules have been removed. The many changes in this edition include:

  • Expanded rules for television programs
  • Expanded rules for structuring cataloger-supplied titles
  • Expanded lists of terms related to physical description
  • Simplified rules for cataloging versions
  • New guidance on choice of access points, such as personal name added entries and uniform titles
  • New rules for collection-level cataloging
  • Examples with MARC 21 content designation
  • Expanded glossary and index
  • Looseleaf binder to accommodate updates and local rule interpretations.
Free updates will be posted on the LC Cataloging Policy and Support Office web site. Updates will also be published in LC’s Cataloging Service Bulletin. AMIM2 will be available on Cataloger’s Desktop (CD-ROM). For more information, please visit the CDS web site at <> or contact the Library of Congress Cataloging Distribution Service, Customer Services Section, Washington, DC 20541-4912, 1-800-255-3666 (Price: $50 North America; $60 outside North America).

National Audio-Visual Conservation Center.   The Library continues to plan to implement the digital preservation of audio and video collections and the digital delivery of content to our two reading rooms in the Madison Building when we move to the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center in Culpeper, VA. Our customary approaches to preservation, however, will not be dropped until we have gained confidence in the efficacy of the new approach. Carl Fleischhauer, who has been assigned to this project by the National Digital Library Program, is working on a design for a digital repository and associated parts of the infrastructure needed to support this new initiative. This planning effort is being carried out in cooperation with the Preservation Directorate, Information Technology Services, and elsewhere, and with a specialist contractor. A Web site devoted to this effort may be found at <>. Since the mid-winter meeting, several new documents have been added to the site, including a requirements document and conceptual design. To learn more about the activity, please contact Carl (telephone: 202-707-3979; email: <>).

Geography and Map Division

Work has continued on the revision of Cartographic Materials: A Manual of Interpretation for AACR2. In January, Elizabeth Mangan presented a set of rule revision proposals to the MAGERT Cataloging and Classification Committee and, with the committee’s approval, to the ALCTS Committee on Cataloging: Description and Access (CC:DA). The majority of the requests were approved and forwarded for consideration by the Joint Steering Committee for AACR. Ms. Mangan attended the Joint Steering Committee’s meeting last March in San Diego to present the revision package for consideration. A second and hopefully, final package of rule revision proposals was prepared for presentation to the Committee and to CC:DA in Chicago. In early August Ms. Mangan, the Technical Services Section head and acting chief in 1998-1999, will be retiring after a 31 year career at LC.

Prints and Photographs Division

Scanning Progress.   Scanning of ca. 50,000 architectural drawings in the popular Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) and Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) collections began in May 2000. The contractor, JJT Inc., uses an Océ roll-feed scanner for safe and rapid image capture of these original pencil and ink designs. By the end of the year, most of the drawings in this Prints & Photographs Division collection should be online. More than 100,000 photographs and 135,000 text pages are already on the Web in American Memory at <>.

Rights Information for Prints & Photographs Collections Now Available Online.   “Can I publish this picture?” is one of the most frequent questions from researchers who use the Prints & Photographs Division collections. As part of LC’s growing digital reference services, general information on copyright and other restrictions as well as specific rights statements for more than fifty collections are now available through the Division’s Home Page: <>. Some of the most heavily used collections are covered: the New York World-Telegram & Sun Newspaper photographs; the LOOK Magazine photographs; the NAACP visual materials; the U.S. News & World Report photographs; the U.S. Farm Security Administration photographs; and Civil War photographs. Eighty more rights statements may be added during the coming year.

More Pictures from the Prints & Photographs Division Available for Researchers.

  • Photographs of frontier life in Colorado, South Dakota, and Wyoming include the work of cowboys and miners, and the interactions between Native Americans and early white settlers. John C. H. Grabill captured almost 200 views, ca. 1888-1891. Digital images display with each record in the Prints and Photographs Online Catalog. Web address: <>
  • Newly cataloged visual materials from the papers of Booker T. Washington and A. Philip Randolph provide more than 1,000 portraits and scenes related to African American history.
  • The architectural history field will benefit from access to more than 500 student works by Howard Dearstyne, executed chiefly between 1928 and 1933, during his study of architecture and design with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig Hilberseimer, and Josef Albers, both at the Bauhaus and privately.
  • Photos by the celebrity chimp J. Fred Muggs are among the new offerings from the Look Magazine Photograph Archive, from which more than 250,000 negatives and contact sheets have been processed and cataloged in the last six months. Images from 1953-1971 (half of this massive collection) are now available to researchers.
Thesaurus for Graphic Materials (TGM) – New terms and search interface.   The TGM Web site features a new search interface and almost 300 new subject terms geared to topics represented in photographs, cartoons, posters, prints, and drawings. After a two-year hiatus, new terms can be added. The printed volume is no longer published; Web address is: <>

Network Development and MARC Standards Office

LC’s W3C Activities.   LC joined the W3C (Web Consortium) in 1999 because there are W3C activities where the library community has much at stake, as well as decades of experience – perhaps substantially more experience than the W3C at large – and where we could provide significant contribution. Activities of direct interest to LC include identifiers, Web accessibility (web-usability for people with disabilities), HTML, and stylesheets. Activities of general interest include XML (including XML schemas and XML query syntax), metadata, intellectual property rights, and character sets. Much of LC’s participation during the past year has focused on identifiers (URLs, URIs, URNs, etc); which is directly tied to our investment in digital library technology.

MARC and EAD DTD Maintenance.   Interest is steadily increasing in the application of SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) to both bibliographic data and archival finding aids. LC has made available for several years a MARC/SGML DTD and conversion programs both to and from SGML. For archival finding aids, LC has served as the maintenance agency for the Encoded Archival Description (EAD) DTD since 1997. EAD provides a standard encoding for the textual finding aids that archives depend on to supplement their MARC and other databases. LC provides Web access to the DTD, HTML version of the Tag Library, and supports an active EAD electronic list that has almost 900 subscribers.

Collaboration of Dublin Core/MARC mapping.   NDMSO is collaborating with OCLC on mapping Dublin Core elements to MARC elements, for use by the CORC system for showing either Dublin Core or MARC views and for conversion of records. NDMSO also maintains the more general Dublin Core/MARC crosswalk which is documented on the MARC Web site. This collaboration is ongoing as the CORC system changes and as the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative approves qualifiers for use with the element set.

MARC Language Code Changes.   Numerous language code changes were recently implemented at the Library of Congress as a result of the effort to make the MARC Code List for Languages compatible with the ISO 639-2 Codes for the representation of names of languages – Alpha-3 code. These were all previously announced over the last several months and have been published in the recently released 2000 edition of the MARC code list. NDMSO chairs the ISO 639 Joint Advisory Committee, and future development of that list will be coordinated with the MARC list and announced to the user community as appropriate.