Committee on Cataloging: Description and Access

Library of Congress

Library of Congress Liaison Report to
Midwinter Meeting, January 2000

Submitted by Barbara B. Tillett, LC Liaison to ALA/ALCTS/CCS/CC:DA

LC at ALA Midwinter

The Library’s exhibit booth is no. 1231. Exhibit hours are:

    Saturday, January 15, 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
    Sunday, January 16, 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
    Monday, January 17, 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.
Staff from the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLSBPH), the Cataloging Distribution Service (CDS), Retail Marketing Office, the National Digital Library Program (NDL), Center for the Book, Copyright, the Bicentennial Program Office, the Public Affairs Office and Library Services will be on hand to answer questions and distribute information relating to LC collections, services, programs and products. We are pleased that we will be joined, for the first time, by representatives from the Integrated Library System Program as well as Human Resources Services, who will be doing targeted recruiting and participating in the ALA Conference Placement Service.

LC Bicentennial

The Bicentennial Web site is the best source for complete and up-to-date information on the Bicentennial program and the various publications, exhibitions, symposia, projects, and other activities planned during 2000. The site, which was recently redesigned to include a user-friendly approach to navigation and new graphical elements, can be accessed from the Library of Congress Web site’s home page (click on “BICENTENNIAL”) or directly at URL: The following are Bicentennial highlights which may be of particular interest to the ALA Midwinter Meeting’s attendees.

A “resolution congratulating the Library of Congress on 200 years of service to the Congress and the nation” will be introduced and voted on at the ALA Council Meeting on Wednesday, January 19, sometime between 8:30 a.m. and 12:00 noon. The resolution not only honors the Library on its Bicentennial, but also recognizes the contribution that all libraries make to our nation and its local communities.

Digital Futures Initiative

The Digital Futures Task Group, co-chaired by the Associate Librarian for Library Services and the director of the National Digital Library Program and comprising managers from all four service units and the Office of the Librarian, developed a set of programs that will employ digital technology to: 1) make LC collections and resources more widely accessible and utilized by patrons, including the education community, around the world; 2) collect and create significant publications in electronic formats (“born digital”) to ensure that LC collections continue to be universal and comprehensive; 3) build collaborations with both national and international institutions to create a global content asset enabling LC to store, preserve, provide access to, and expand its resources; and 4) create a culture of technical and strategic innovation to ensure that LC staff can fulfill traditional and expanded resources to customers. A funding request will be included in the Library’s fiscal 2001 budget request.

Integrated Library System

The Library successfully completed the implementation of the Integrated Library System (LC ILS) within budget and on track with its original estimated date of all parts “live” by October 1, 1999. The Cataloging and Circulation modules were implemented August 16th; the Online Public Access Catalog, Windows version, August 25th, the Web version, August 31st, and the Acquisitions and Serials check-in modules, October 1st.

Staff completed the largest workstation and software roll-out and training program in the Library’s history in preparation for the ILS. Over 3,320 staff received new ILS equipment and training.

Migration figures:

   Bibliographic:    11,786,470
     (excludes JACKPHY, CONSER gap records)
   Authority:         4,919,933
   Holdings:         11,611,500
Breakdown for non-book materials:
   Projected medium:        181,890
   2D nonproj. graphic:      42,083
   Printed music:            57,998
   Manus. music:              1,149
   Nonmusical sound rec:     13,369
   Musical sound rec:       151,552
   Computer file:             9,284
   Cartographic:            239,934
     (includes Atlas records converted from book format)
   Mixed material:           10,631
In addition to bibliographic, authority, and holdings records migrated from 6 legacy systems, thousands of patron, order, and vendor records were also loaded, as follows:
   Patron:          25,735
   Vendor:          30,657
   Order:           54,862
The Library also began the retrospective holdings conversion of data in its two largest remaining manual files, the 12 million card shelflist file and the 900,000-title serials check-in file. Conversion of the holdings information from these files into the LC ILS will greatly contribute to the Library’s inventory control and materials security.

In fiscal 2000 the ILS Program is scheduled to implement LC Voyager task orders and updates, increase the system server and storage capacity, maintain the system, provide training for new software releases, and continue contract services to convert the shelflist and serials check-in retrospective holdings files.

Although references and scope notes from authority records for headings in bibliographic records are available to users of the LC Online Catalog, full MARC 21 authority records (names and subjects) are not displayed nor are they available via Z39.50. LC will continue to provide full MARC 21 authority records (new, updated, and deleted) through the MARC Distribution Service, which is used to update authority files in OCLC, RLIN, and many other vendor services. LC’s ILS Program Office is working with Endeavor Information Systems, Inc. to provide full MARC authorities in the Web OPAC by the end of calendar year 2000. We expect that all authority records in the Name Authority and Subject Authority Files (approximately 5 million records) will be available in the full MARC 21 format for downloading from LC’s Web OPAC, as well as via Z39.50. For immediate access to LC’s MARC 21 authority data during this interim period, users may consult a list compiled by LC’s Cataloging Distribution Service (CDS) of commercial alternatives to CDMARC products at The Library regrets that the entire database of MARC 21 authority records is not currently searchable or displayable to our OPAC users. We look forward to offering this feature by the end of 2000.

Access to the LOCIS catalog files (whether accessed via MUMS or SCORPIO) ceased on Jan. 11, 2000 at which time these legacy files were retired. The MUMS Z39.50 server was also closed at that time, replaced by the LC’s Voyager Z39.50 server. For information about connecting to LC’s Voyager system via Z39.50, the following document should be consulted: Some non-catalog SCORPIO files will continue to be available: the federal legislation files (e.g., CG105, CG105) will continue to be available via SCORPIO until June 5. Copyright files will remain in SCORPIO until replacement systems have been implemented.

Additional information about the ILS can be found on the public ILS Web page at URLs: and and on the LC Web page at URL:


Cataloging Policy

LC AACR2 Implementation. The Library of Congress plans to implement the “1998 Revision” of the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd ed. (AACR2) in February or March 2000. The actual implementation date will depend upon receipt of the copies of the paperback edition from ALA as well as the availability of updates to the Library of Congress Rule Interpretations that are related to the “1998 Revision.” LC deferred implementation until after the ILS implementation. The few rule revisions that are unique to the “1998 Revision” pertain mainly to provisions for bibliographic description rather than to headings. Most are already covered by existing LCRIs.

Implementation of Change in Indicator Value for Multiple Surnames in MARC 21. In 1996, the first indicator value 2 (Multiple surname) in X00 fields in MARC 21 was made obsolete. Value 1 (Single surname) was redefined as “surname” to be used for headings with either single or multiple surnames. At the time value 2 was made obsolete, various factors contributed to a delay in implementation, including, more recently, the installation of the LC ILS. (By exception, the change was implemented by the British Library and three NACO libraries (National Library of Scotland, Cambridge, and Oxford) linked to the BL in a UK cooperative called the Copyright Libraries Shared Cataloguing Programme (CLSC), and the UK’s National Art Library. Authority records contributed by the Dance Heritage Coalition also contained the change.) Now that the LC ILS has been installed, LC assessed the best way to implement this change within the context of available resources. After consulting various libraries and agencies about the proposed implementation plan, LC implemented the change beginning January 1, 2000, according to the following guidelines for LC/NACO libraries.

The basis of the implementation of the indicator change is that authority and bibliographic records will be treated independently, i.e., there will be no attempt to keep authority and bibliographic records in synchronization. The goals of the implementation are to assure that: 1. all newly created authority and bibliographic records reflect the change; and 2. all existing records that are changed will be consistent within themselves. Guidelines may be found at URL:

Subject Headings to Individual Works of Fiction. The Library of Congress is conducting an experiment in assigning subject headings to individual works of fiction. Selected catalogers from the History and Literature Cataloging Division are assigning subject headings according to draft guidelines prepared by the Cataloging Policy and Support Office. The experiment will provide a means of evaluating the draft guidelines with a view to issuing more detailed instructions as part of the Subject Cataloging Manual.

Library of Congress Subject Headings. Work continues on two long-term projects that are part of the implementation of subfield $v for form subdivisions in the Library of Congress Subject Headings system that took place in February 1999. Since that date, LC catalogers have been coding form subdivisions that function as forms in Library of Congress Subject Headings assigned to new bibliographic records as $v rather than $x. Individual instances of form subdivisions in subject authority records are being recoded from $x to $v. To date over 2,100 authority records have been recoded with the project estimated to be more than halfway complete. Form subdivisions in bibliographic records are being recoded on a case-by-case basis only as subject headings in individual records are updated or revised for other reasons. Using new 18X fields, subdivision authority records are being created to control the more than 3,100 free-floating subdivisions. To date more than 1,100 subdivision authority records have been created and distributed.

LC Classification. The 1999 editions of classes R (Medicine) and T (Technology) and the 2000 edition of subclass PJ-PK (Oriental Philology and Literature, Indo-Iranian Philology and Literature) have been published by the Cataloging Distribution Service. The 2000 edition of KJ-KKZ (Law of Europe) should be available for purchase from CDS by May 2000.

KBR (History of Canon Law) and KBU (Law of the Roman Catholic Church. The Holy See) are in the final stages of development. In cooperation with Islamists at Harvard Law School Center for Islamic Legal Studies, KBP (Islamic Law) is in advanced state of development. After an initial round of discussions with specialists at NYU, and Professor Menachem Elon of the University of Jerusalem, a draft of KBM (Jewish Law) will be developed by LC and two specialists at NYU.

Series Authority Records. NACO participants who contribute series authority records (SARs) to the national authority file may contribute them for all categories of videorecordings (materials covered by AACR2, Chapter 7). There had been a restriction on some categories of series for videorecordings since LC staff use the Archival Moving Image Materials rules instead of AACR2 for such materials. A note about LC’s use of the other rules (which call for the “series” title and the “volume” title both to be recorded in the 245 field of the bibliographic record) may be added by LC to the NACO SARs in the future. In these situations, LC’s bibliographic records will not be changed to match the SARs contributed by the NACO participants.

Implementation Date for LCCN Restructure Announced. January 1, 2001 has been targeted as the implementation date for the restructuring of the Library of Congress Control Number (LCCN) to adopt a four-digit year portion of the number. Complete details of the restructure may be found at

Descriptive Cataloging of Digital Audio Sound Recordings. The Music Cataloging Advisory Group (MCAG) has been considering means of incorporating information for certain technical features of recent sound recording formats (digital audio tapes and magneto optical discs) into bibliographic records. Discussions are focusing on terms to be used as the specific material designation in MARC field 300, information on sampling frequency, bit rate, and playback equipment to be recorded in MARC field 538, and characteristics to be recorded in MARC field 007.

Uniqueness of Call Numbers Assigned by LC. In the past the Library of Congress has attempted to ensure the uniqueness of each LC call number it assigns. With the implementation of the LC ILS on August 16, 1999, the Library will continue to ensure the uniqueness of call numbers it assigns in either field 050 or 051 in active bibliographic records. The mechanism used in the LC card shelflist that allowed the Library to ensure unique call numbers over time was to retain a card for each call number that was no longer actively in use for whatever reason (e.g., a work was reclassified; an item was withdrawn from the collections). There is no direct counterpart to this mechanism in the LC ILS. The Library considered alternatives but judged the resources required to ensure the uniqueness of call numbers currently assigned in relation to all call numbers ever assigned were disproportionate to the perceived benefit. Therefore, the Library can no longer guarantee that a call number once used (e.g., for a work now reclassified; in a bibliographic record that has now been canceled) will not be used again.

The Library of Congress continues to plan and coordinate conversion activities with the bibliographic utilities, RLG and OCLC. The utilities have agreed to convert bibliographic records in their files to pinyin. RLG will begin by converting some 2,000,000 records which are identified as Chinese in the 008 field in its RLIN database, including some 175,000 LC Chinese records. OCLC plans to convert all 46,000,000 records in its WorldCat file, including the Library’s serial records. OCLC has also agreed to identify and convert name authority records with Wade-Giles elements to pinyin.

Pinyin Romanization

On October 7, 1999 representatives from six major collections in the United States and a representative from the Council on East Asian Languages (CEAL) met with staff from the Library of Congress, OCLC, and RLG for an unofficial day-long planning meeting. Participants explored a wide range of issues related to local systems and catalogs, and worked on a coordinated approach to the conversion project. The group reached consensus on a sequence in which certain milestones were to be achieved, along with dates and time frames for major activities. There was agreement that as many authority records as possible should be converted in advance of the display of converted bibliographic records on RLIN and OCLC. The group proposed October 1, 2000, as the target for “Day 1” to allow sufficient time for conversion of authorities. After Day 1, systematic romanization of Chinese on new cataloging and authority records will be done in pinyin. The utilities will begin to convert bibliographic records before Day 1 occurs, and will load those records into their files as they are converted. Both converted authority records and bibliographic records will be marked, for purposes of identification and to prevent re-conversion. RLG and OCLC will return snapshots of converted records to individual libraries for loading into local systems.

The Library has completed the revision of name authority records for Chinese conventional place names. More than 260 name authority records for Chinese conventional place names and 5300 related authority records have been revised so that they now appear in forms recommended by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Most of these headings on bibliographical records will be changed during machine conversion to pinyin.

In response to requests from the library community, conversion of subject headings, and related changes to the classification schedule, will be undertaken shortly before Day 1 occurs.

The pinyin conversion project will be the subject of discussion at the RLG Forum, which will be held on Sunday, January 16 from 9:00 to 11:00 AM, Hilton Palacio Del Rio – Del Ray N. Panelists will include Philip Melzer of the Library, Karen Smith-Yoshimura of RLG, Glenn Patton of OCLC, Peter Zhou representing CEAL, administrators and automation specialists from several of the major library collections. The overall conversion strategy will be presented, along with a timeline jointly written by the Library of Congress, RLG and OCLC. Proposals for markers on bibliographic records (in the 987 local field) and name authority records (in the 008/07 fixed field) will also be presented. The Pinyin Home Page provides information and status reports about the conversion project at URL


Music Teams

Arrearage Reduction Efforts of the Music and Sound Recordings Teams.
  • 45s Project: The processing of the original arrearage of 125,000 discs that began in 1997 was completed in March 1999. An additional 25,000 discs was received in late March and cataloging of the works began one month later. Procedural changes were introduced to address security and processing issues. A grand total of 31,593 records was cleared from the 45s arrearage during fiscal 1999.
  • AFRTS: The cataloging of the Armed Forces Radio and Television Series discs continued in 1999. The series prefix P (popular music) was completed for the 12" vinyl discs. This collection of unpublished 12- and 16-inch radio discs was produced in the 1940s and 1950s and consisted of a variety of entertainment ranging from the musical to the dramatic. The overall total number of discs processed to date is 74,662.
  • A-Z Cassettes: In 1999 through November, 2,659 items have been processed which brings the overall total to 45,623. The copyright cassette arrearage has been processed and the work now focuses on new receipts encompassing a variety of music types such as rhythm and blues, recorded accompaniments, etc.
  • LPs Arrearage: 940 discs have been processed in this new project. The discs are being inventoried in the Cuadra Star database.
  • Marlboro Music Festival Tapes: This project was to catalog from the MBRS arrearage the Marlboro Music Festival Tapes. Approximately 200 taped concerts were cataloged.
  • Miscellaneous 78s: Processing of the miscellaneous discs from the post-R&D collection, the Spotswood, Feinstein and the Farley-Dickenson collections cleared 4,031 records.
  • MOPIC Copyright paperwork: A backlog of 8,862 pieces of copyright paperwork in the Motion Picture, Broadcasting, and Recorded Sound Divisions’s Moving Images Section was processed. The material was sorted, boxed, labeled, and inter-shelved in the existing collection. As additional material is received it will be processed accordingly.
  • National Public Radio tapes: The processing of the 25,000 7" and 10" reel-to-reel tapes began in mid-March. To date, 1,053 items have been cataloged on Cuadra Star.
  • Valburn Project: This project, new in 1999, focused on processing a collection of Duke Ellington works consisting of approximately 3,000 LPs. A total of 228 discs was processed in MUMS by copy cataloging. The LPs were searched in OCLC for exact matches, downloaded into LC’s database and modified accordingly.
Computer Files

Cataloging of monographic computer files. The tangible computer files continue to come faster than they can be cataloged. The number on hand awaiting cataloging has grown approximately a thousand from 6,345 last June to 7,387 now. Team members were intensely involved with preparation for the Integrated Library System (ILS) and shelflist conversion, and are now integrated into the new system, working to reduce their arrearage, and also cataloging online resources.

The Computer Files/Microforms Team wrote and implemented the procedures for Production Level Cataloging (PLC) of computer files. This level of cataloging is equivalent to PLC for music or Minimal Level Cataloging (MLC) for books, briefer than full or core level records. It is being used for titles published or copyrighted more than two years before the current year.

The team is currently studying the guidelines for collection level cataloging and PCC Core Level Guidelines, and plans to implement Core Level Cataloging in the very near future.

International outreach and closer ties with NDL. The team was host to several visiting librarians from foreign countries. Monika Mindosova from the library of Presov University, Slovak Republic, assisted the team with cataloging Internet resources and doing an analysis of the BEOnline and CORC projects. Monika Cremer and Heike Neuroth from the Staats- und Universitatsbibliothek Gottingen and Stefan Wolf from the Library Service Center of Baden- Wurttemberg, visited the team to discuss the cataloging of tangible and intangible computer resources and microforms. Dr. Neuroth remained with the team for an entire week, working with Allene Hayes creating records for online resources through the CORC project. Mikiko Sato from the National Diet Library in Japan and Kaori Murakami of the University of Maryland School of Library Science discussed the cataloging of tangible and intangible computer resources with the computer files catalogers. Akemi Noda, another library science student at the University of Maryland spent several days with the team learning about the cataloging of tangible and intangible computer resources. On Aug 10, Allene Hayes demonstrated the cataloging of computer files and online resources to a delegation from the National Academy of Sciences.

Through meetings related to “born digital” online resources and contacts with the National Digital Library and reference staff, the team is building a better workflow for receiving information on online resources to be cataloged.

Business and Economic Resources Online (BEOnline). BEOnline began as an experimental project designed to explore means of access and bibliographic control for remote Internet resources of interest to the practice or study of entrepreneurship and small business, including general business resources. The project went into production this year, and a number of significant developments, especially regarding its integration into Library of Congress plan for participation, along with that of other libraries, in the OCLC Cooperative Online Resource Cataloging (CORC) project means that the project’s goal of making web resources available through the LC catalog has now taken on a much wider scope, with the inherent implications for catalog content that inter-institutional activity implies.

The project is now preparing to expand its subject coverage across the disciplines. The team was also instrumental in framing a recommendation to the Cataloging directorate that LC register with the CORC project, and that it use the CORC cataloging feature to replace the program which LC staff had written for the BEOnline cataloging project within LC. With the decision to participate, the BEOnline Team is proceeding to develop a workflow for the expanded version of the project, called BEOnline Plus.

Monographs processing was placed on hold due to the transition to the ILS. In April, before the halt, monographic BEOnline records were released for distribution through MUMS, and those records can now be now be found in OCLC, RLIN and are available to CDS subscribers. The Serials portion of BEOnline+ is continuing with production as usual; cataloging directly into OCLC. Monographic online resources, however, will be cataloged directly into the CORC database and then imported into the LC Integrated Library System. All selected resources are listed on the BEOnline Web page and can be accessed directly through hyperlinks. BEOnline has created almost 300 records, which include monographs (102), Serials (136), Metadata records (41) and others that are in process. A statistical update is also provided on the BEOnline Update page with information on enhancements to related print publications and authority records created. The BEOnline Web site address is Comments or questions on the Project are welcome and may be directed to the project leader, Allene Hayes at


Moving Image Section

The National Audio-Visual Conservation Center project is proceeding well (see additional notes on this under Sound Recordings below). The architectural team will be beginning detailed design in February 2000. David Packard, through the Packard Humanities Institute, has allocated a further $45 million to the project in addition to the original $10 million which he channeled to us through the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. This will enable us to get the 1 to 3 dollar match promised by Congress. Construction will be completed by summer 2002 and occupation will take place in FY2003.

We plan to implement the digital preservation of audio and video collections and the digital delivery of content to our two reading rooms in the Madison Building when we move to the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center. Our customary approaches to preservation, however, will not be dropped until we have gained confidence in the efficacy of the new approach. Carl Fleischhauer, who is on loan to us from the National Digital Library Program, is working on a design for a digital repository and associated parts of the infrastructure needed to support this new initiative. This planning effort is being carried out in cooperation with our colleagues in the Library’s Preservation Directorate, Information Technology Services, and elsewhere, and with a specialist contractor. A website devoted to effort may be found at We foresee that the costs for development and future implementation will be high and are interested in learning if other libraries or archives have an interest in joining the Library of Congress in these activities. To express such interest, or to learn more about the activity, please get in touch with Carl (Tel: 202-707-3979; email:

M/B/RS Moving Image Section Announces Forthcoming Publication of Revised Archival Moving Image Materials: A Cataloging Manual (AMIM) in June 2000. A committee of Moving Image Processing Unit staff has revised the manual, with contributions from LC’s Cataloging Policy and Support Office, additional M/B/RS staff, and the Association of Moving Image Archivists (AMIA). The planned publication date for the second edition of AMIM is June 2000. Final revisions are to be completed by early February. Additions to this edition include MARC formatted examples and guidelines for collection-level cataloging and access points. Many rules have been revised including those dealing with transcription, supplied titles, versions, series, and physical description. The glossary and index are currently being expanded. Comments from the following organizations were considered during the revision process: ALCTS/CCSCC:DA, ALCTS Media Resources Committee, AMIA Cataloging and Documentation Committee, Music Library Association Bibliographic Control Committee, National Library of Medicine Cataloging Section, and Online Audiovisual Catalogers Cataloging Policy Committee.

Sound Recording Section
The National Audio-Visual Conservation Center impact on Recorded Sound. Plans for the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center in Culpeper, Virginia have kept apace with the target start date of 2003. As can be imagined, moving the staff and the entire collections of the M/B/RS Recorded Sound and Moving Image Sections is a tremendous undertaking that has, and will continue to have, a profound effect on the work of the Division. Getting “Culpeper ready” will be the over-riding goal for the next three years. Carl Fleischhauer, on detail from the National Digital Library staff, spent the year planning a prototype pilot project as a first step toward a fully realized digital preservation facility for audio and moving image materials at Culpeper.

Processing. In addition to being the first year of actual preparation for the move to Culpeper and digital preservation, 1999 was the year of the LC ILS implementation. While its impact has been considerable, the most significant changes brought on by the new system to the processing of sound recordings at the Library of Congress won’t be evident until 2000 and beyond.

Unpublished Sound Recordings. In 1999 M/B/RS Recorded Sound Processing Unit staff continued ongoing processing projects for unpublished material in the Cuadra STAR database, including the Marine Corps Combat Recordings, the Leonard Bernstein Collection, Newport Jazz Festival tapes, and vintage jazz test pressings. A Web version of STAR has been developed and should be available for public use in the next few months. All new processing is being done on ILS, and these include the Voice Of America Tape Library, Works Progress Administration transcription recordings, and Emil Berliner test pressings.

Published Sound Recordings. M/B/RS has developed an accessioning procedure for compact discs that we believe will allow us to create and maintain an inventory of all acquisitions, as well as begin the task of processing retrospectively. Data provided by MUZE Inc., along with OCLC copy cataloging will play a major part in this new process, that is expected to begin early in 2000. It is planned that this project will be initiated by staff of the Special Materials Cataloging Division. The year’s acquisitions (see below) have brought on a real need for an LP processing plan that will include shelf compare for condition assessments and best copy selection, preparation of a cataloging data sheet, and the splitting of copies to separate storage locations (a basic tenet of audio storage at Culpeper).

Acquisitions. The major sound recording acquisition of 1999 was the Frederic Klinger Collection of 40,000 jazz LPs. Along with the Tommy Long Collection of 30,000 45rpm discs, 1999 was a good year for the Library’s collection of rock ’n roll and jazz. Other significant acquisitions included 900 opera recordings on 78rpm disc in the Joseph Greene Collection, and the Thomas Rimer Collection of 5,000 classical LPs and 78s. Current CDs continue to come in via the Copyright Office at the rate of 30,000 per year. That number is expected to increase as staff work to enforce copyright compliance. In all, the Section acquired over 125,000 sound recordings this year.


The Division has a new chief, John Hébert, who is being oriented to cataloging policies and procedures.

The National Digital Library staff of the Division will complete the collection of 19th century railroad maps by the end of January. NDL staff have also begun scanning and cataloging the United States Civil War maps.